Rhizopus oryzae mushrooms are safe for consumption because they do not produce toxins

Rhizopus oryzae mushrooms are safe for consumption because they do not produce toxins
Rhizopus sp. i.e. the white colony gradually becomes gray; stolon smooth or slightly coarse and colorless to brownish yellow; sporangiofora grow from stolons and point to the air, either singly or in groups (up to 5 sporangiofora); rhizoid grows opposite and located in the same position as sporangiofora; sporangia globus or sub globus with a pinululous wall (short spines), which are dark brown to black when ripe; oval to round columns, with smooth or slightly rough walls; round, oval or elliptical or cylindrical spores; optimal temperature for growth of 350C, a minimum of 5-70C and a maximum of 440C. Based on lactic acid produced Rhizopus oryzae including heterofermentative microbes (Kuswanto and Slamet, 1989). Tempe is a popular food in our country. Although it is a simple food, tempeh has or contains a high source of vegetable protein.
Tempe is food made from fermented soybean seeds or some other material that uses several types of Rhizopus molds, such as Rhizopus oligosporus, Rh. oryzae, Rh. stolonifer (antifungal effect of five tropical plant leaf extract), or Rh. arrhizus, thus forming a compact white solid. This fermentation preparation is commonly known as tempe yeast. The white color of tempeh is caused by the fungus mycelia growing on the surface of soybean seeds. The compact texture is also caused by the fungus mise that connects the soybean seeds. Lots of fungi are active during fermentation, but generally researchers consider that Rhizopus sp is the most dominant fungus.
The fungus that grows on soybean produces enzymes that can remodel complex organic compounds into simpler compounds so that these compounds can quickly be used by the body. Tempe is widely consumed in the world, but now it is worldwide. Many vegetarians around the world have used tempeh instead of meat. As a result, tempeh is now produced in many places in the world, not only in the world.
Various studies in a number of countries, such as Germany, Japan, and the United States. Also now trying to develop Rhizopus superior strains to produce tempe that is faster, better quality, or improves the nutritional content of tempe. Some parties are concerned that this activity could threaten the existence of tempe as a food ingredient in the public sector because superior tempeh yeast lines can be registered with patents so that their use is protected by law (requires a license from the patent holder). Rhizopus oryzae mushroom is a fungus that is often used in making tempeh (Soetrisno, 1996). Rhizopus oryzae mushrooms are safe for consumption because they do not produce toxins and are able to produce lactic acid (Purwoko and Pamudyanti, 2004).
Rhizopus oryzae mushroom has the ability to break down complex fats into triglycerides and amino acids (Septiani, 2004). Besides the fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce proteases (Margiono, 1992). According to Sorenson and Hesseltine (1986), Rhizopus sp grows well in the pH range of 3.4-6. In the study the longer the fermentation time, the pH of tempeh increased to pH 8.4, so that the fungus decreases because high pH is not suitable for fungal growth.
In general, mushrooms also need water for growth, but mushroom water needs are less than bacteria. In addition to pH and water content that is not suitable for fungal growth, the amount of nutrients in the material, also needed by the fungus. Basically the process of making tempe is the process of planting microbial species of Rhizopus sp mushroom on soybean media, so that the fermentation process occurs by the yeast.
The result of fermentation causes the texture of soybeans to become softer, the decomposition of protein contained in soybeans becomes simpler, so that it has a better digestibility than food products from soybeans that do not go through the fermentation process. Tempe is made from soybeans with the help of the fungus Rhizopus sp. This fungus will change the protein complex of soy beans that are difficult to digest into simple proteins that are easily digested because of chemical changes in protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
During the fermentation process of soybeans into tempeh, antibiotics will be produced which will prevent stomach diseases such as diarrhea. Making tempeh is done in various ways including: In principle, the way of making tempe in a new way is the same as the old or traditional way and the difference is in the stripping stage of soybean skin. Where in the old way (traditional) soybeans boiled and soaked with the skin or still intact while in the new way before the skin has been peeled soy (dry peel) by using a soybean stripping tool.
The next steps are the same as the traditional method. Tempeh made in a new way (soybean color) is paler when compared to the old way. In fact, this is caused - because in the new way soybeans are boiled and soaked in the skin so that there are substances that dissolve (Warisno, 2010).

Get into the habit of walking fast from now on because of its extraordinary benefits

Get into the habit of walking fast from now on because of its extraordinary benefits
Routine brisk walking for 30 minutes every day will provide good health benefits for the body. Among these are the body fat will be reduced, strength and endurance of the muscles will increase, the heart system and blood vessels more smoothly, the bones will be stronger. Brisk walking is defined as a fairly fast walking activity, but different from running. With brisk walking, a distance of one kilometer can be reached within 12 minutes. To get health benefits, we are recommended to walk fast for at least 30 minutes every day. Effect of brisk walking on obese female adult. But if that feels difficult, there are more mitigating choices. For example, by breaking the schedule of fast walking sports into three stages with each stage taking a duration of 10 minutes. Most importantly, the main goal to make brisk walking a routine activity is achieved.
These are the Benefits of the Fast Walk for the Body Brisk walking has many benefits for the body. Some of them are below: Improve mood A study states that brisk walking routinely has the potential to improve mood. In addition, this exercise can also help overcome depression. Walking in a park surrounded by greenery and fresh air has been proven effective in providing a relaxing effect, soothing anxiety, and can help you sleep more soundly.
Reducing the risk of dementia Activities run, both fast and relaxed, which is done routinely can accelerate blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of vascular disease. In fact, according to research, walking regularly can reduce the risk of dementia and help maintain brain function in old age. Maintaining heart health Walking fast is also good for maintaining heart health. In addition, brisk walking is also useful in helping to control blood pressure and reduce cholesterol. Both of these conditions are factors that increase a person's chance of heart disease and stroke.
Prevent or control diabetes Brisk walking between 20-30 minutes a day can help reduce blood sugar levels. In addition, brisk walking that is done routinely also has the opportunity to get the ideal body weight. Both of these are important aspects in helping to prevent and manage diabetes. Prevents osteoarthritis Walking is a good form of weight training for bones and muscles. Walking is also a positive activity that can help keep cartilage healthy.
This is useful in order to prevent weakening of the bones or osteoporosis. Activities that are carried out routinely are also useful for preventing diseases related to aging in the form of painful, swollen, and stiff joints, which we commonly call osteoarthritis. Reducing the risk of cancer Routine exercise including walking fast accompanied by a healthy lifestyle can actually reduce a person's risk of cancer, such as breast, colon, prostate, and uterine cancer. The benefits of brisk walking as a cancer prevention are associated with reduced inflammation, a stronger immune system, and an improvement in the body's metabolism that can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Do this so that the fast road is not dangerous Doing any sport must be done in the right way to minimize the risk of injury.
Therefore, do a few of these things before taking a brisk walk. Choose the right shoes and clothes In order to walk more optimally, choose the right shoes to protect the feet. In addition to shoes, clothing that is used is recommended adjusted to the weather and the user's condition and comfort. If exercising outdoors at night, you should wear brightly colored clothes or reflectors to make it easier for other road users to know where you are.
Choose a safe and comfortable road route Choose a good location, safe, and convenient to do brisk walking. Always pay attention to the terrain or roads so that they are not injured or injured. Avoid potholes, uneven roads, unfriendly weather, or places that are too crowded for this activity to run optimally. Warm up Before brisk walking, it's best to warm up for at least 5-10 minutes. This heating of muscles is useful for preparing the body for activities and avoiding injury.
Cooling down When brisk walking is nearing the end, reduce the intensity of this exercise by taking a leisurely walk. Walking for 5-10 minutes can help the muscles that were hot become cold. Stretch Stretch after you cool down. If you prefer to stretch before brisk walking, don't forget to warm up first. Brisk walking is an inexpensive and easy to do activity. In addition, this activity is also minimal risk if done properly. It's just that, if you have certain conditions of health problems, it is advisable to consult a doctor so that this activity can still have positive implications for the body.

Public Expenditure Management in Government

Public Expenditure Management in Government
Public Expenditure Management (PEM) is a new approach to the problem of allocating state money through collective choices. PEM works through a different budget policy mechanism than conventional budgeting. This difference can be seen in two categories: 1. PEM provides conventional procedural regulatory supplements to substantive policy norms. PEM is not only enough for the government to implement the right procedure but more importantly is how the government creates efficient policies to achieve the desired results and effect of public expenditure on the economic growth.
2. PEM has a very broad scope in various institutional and government management arrangements. PEM recognizes that budget outcomes are unlikely to be optimal if the public sector is less structured and well managed, or the information provided to policymakers is not optimal thus encouraging them to make distorted decisions The main elements of public expenditure management, are: a. Aggregate Fiscal Dicipline. The total budget must be an explicit, powerful decision, which not only accommodates the placement needs. This total budget must be made before the details are determined, and must last in the medium term.
b. Allocative Efficiency. Expenditures must be based on government priorities and the effectiveness of the public programs that are implemented. The budget system must encourage the relocation of funds from programs with low priorities to high priorities and from programs with low to high effectiveness. c. Operational Efficiency. Agencies must produce goods and services at a cost level to achieve goals that are efficient and at a cost level that is competitive with the market. Since the beginning of its growth, budgeting has been established as a form of procedure that repeatedly occurs, and usually with little change from year to year using the ratio of government resources among its agents and oversight of each amount issued.
So budgeting is the work of choice of relinquishment related to public finance. This characteristic distinguishes budgeting from other government actions that affect public spending, such as national planning and cabinet policies. There are several basic principles in budgeting, namely comprehensiveness (budget must include income and expenses), accuracy (budget must reflect actual transactions and flows), annuality (budget must cover a fixed time period, usually at one fiscal time), authoritativeness (funds the public spent must be under the attorney's authority, and finally transparency (the government must show budget information in the form of estimates and actual expenditures on a regular basis).
These budgeting principles are to be implemented and implemented through detailed procedural rules, including the scope of the budget, information therein, timetable for taking certain actions, forms to be used, authorization is needed before public funds are issued, etc. Each of these principles is based on formal rules that are implemented by budget controllers in the central government and related departments. The accumulation of principles and procedures is part of the due process in budgeting. Due process is like an assessment, and if these procedures are voiced, the outcomes are correct. Thus, these results must be estimated in relation to the procedures that produce these outcomes and not those related to substantive criteria.
The budgeting process encourages the government to centralize management and oversight of public expenditure. This centralization goes hand in hand with uniformity in budget procedures. All expenditure units must use the same form, operate according to the same time and follow the same steps in applying the budget.
In a small government, the budget process is carried out by the central office that makes regulations, oversees permits, prepares budgets and oversees spending. The Due Process approach provides the benefit of forming a financial supervision base in government, ensuring that financial information is rational and accurate, uniform and timely. The government cannot regulate its own expenditure effectively if due process is violated materially.
However, due process is an inadequate basis for managing public spending because it will systematically lead to conflicting and undesirable results. Government expenditure management (PEM) deals with the focus of incentives on the informal aspects of budgeting, participant attitudes, and behavior influenced by budget rules.
Second, PEM is also influenced by information of policy makers and managers who spend public money. The condition of this information is influenced by two related factors: the costs of producing and disseminating relevant information, and the benefits that the information producer (agent) has more user information (principle). Third, PEM relates to the formal role in which the central supervisor has official authority to decide everything from the total budget to the various expenses.

What does money laundering mean?

What does money laundering mean?
Reporting on the Howstuffwork website, money laundering is the act of making money from Source A looks like it came from Source B. In practice, the perpetrators try to disguise the origin of the money obtained through illegal activities so that it looks like it was obtained from legal sources. If not, they cannot use the money because it will link them to criminal activities and will be confiscated by law enforcement officials. Another explanation regarding the effect of money laundering and crime of money laundering is defined by the world business law experts,, in his book entitled The Ins and Outs of the Crimes of Money Laundering and Financing Terrorism.
Sutan explained that money laundering is a series of activities which is a process carried out by a person or organization against illicit money, that is money that comes from crime. The intention is to hide or disguise the origin of the money from the government or the authorities authorized to take action against criminal acts. The method used is mainly putting the money into the financial system so that the money can then be removed from the financial system as legal money. There is also a money laundering process that has three stages as follows:
1. Placement. At this stage, the perpetrator inserts the dirty money into a legitimate financial institution. This is often in the form of a bank cash deposit. This is the most terrible stage of the washing process because it involves a large amount of cash that is quite striking and the bank is required to report high-value transactions.
2. Layering. This stage involves sending money through various financial transactions to change its form and make it difficult to follow. Layering can consist of several bank-to-bank transfers, wire transfers between different accounts under different names in different countries, making deposits and withdrawals to continue to change the amount of money in the account, change currency, and buy high-value goods such as ships, houses , a car, or a diamond to change money.
This is the most complicated step in a money laundering scheme and this is all an effort to make money from the crime difficult to trace its origin and purpose.
3. Integration. Up to this point, money is returning to the mainstream economy in a form that appears legitimate, apparently from legal transactions. This might involve the last bank transfer to a local business account where the leaching "invests" in exchange for a profit cut, the sale of the cruise ship purchased during the coating stage. At this point, the perpetrator can use money without getting caught. It is very difficult to catch perpetrators during the integration phase if there is no documentation from the previous stage.
If caught, the perpetrators of money laundering in the world will be charged with Law number 8 of 2010 concerning Prevention and Eradication of Money Laundering, or more popularly called the Law. Punishment awaits the perpetrator Article 3 of the Law explains that everyone who places, transfers, transfers, spends, pays, grants, entrusts, brings abroad, changes its form, exchanges with currency or securities or other acts of assets that are known or deserved. is the result of a criminal offense that will be jailed for a maximum of 20 years and a maximum fine of 10 billion. Meanwhile, article 4 reads, "Anyone who conceals or disguises the origin, source, location, designation, transfer of rights, or the actual ownership of assets he knows or deserves to be a criminal offense will be jailed for a maximum of 20 years. and a maximum fine of 5 billion. " Those who are "not directly involved" still face severe penalties. Article Law states that the person who receives or controls the placement, transfer, payment, gift, donation, safekeeping, exchange, or use of assets he knows or deserves to be a criminal offense will be jailed for a maximum of 5 years and a maximum fine of 1 billion.

The development of communication media

The development of communication media
Humans are living creatures that are created differently from other living creatures. We humans have a mind that makes us always think we can live better, more comfortably and get out of trouble. Because it formed a communication media that can facilitate a communication. As we know in ancient times communication is very limited. We cannot communicate with people who are in different areas so that communication is limited by space and time. But because humans have a sense that makes them have to find solutions to a problem, technology is formed to solve the problem. In the beginning people communicated using pigeons and letters.
Changing technologies and the media, now we can use sophisticated technology without being limited by space and time such as mobile phones or the internet. Advances in technology and communication also make it easier for us to be able to find various information that we need from websites on the internet such as Google.
At this time the communication media can not be separated from human life because without communication media we will be more difficult in carrying out other activities. The development of technology at this time has opened a new face in the role of the community to better know and be able to use and feel the benefits and can obtain world information directly both through the reporting of electronic and print media with the development of communication media at this time the community can be critical and responsive towards something that develops.
However, with the current development of communication media technology, humans cannot deceive themselves to the fact that communication media can bring damage and misery to every user if humans themselves cannot control themselves in terms of the utilization of these communication media. Damage resulting from the development of communication media in the form of news delivered by the media can manipulate the minds of the listeners. For example, certain political parties can manipulate reports that benefit those who will demonstrate political control in the media. Violence is also a major factor that is seen and has the potential to be a dangerous instigator in young audiences. Young people are influenced by what they see on television or the internet, then mimic acts of violence. An example is a smackdown event that causes a child to die.
The unnecessary sensationalism of an issue can also project misinformation to the public. The information reported is also not authentic from every angle. Therefore, there might be a misinterpretation of something. The development of communication media not only has a negative impact but certainly has a positive impact as the media in its form can introduce us to creative ways of thinking that can help us improve in different ways, both in our personal or work lives. This can change perspective and motivate us to do new things.
The media can also help us connect with others throughout the world and become more open and understanding the cultures of other nations. Children also benefit from the media because they can increase their knowledge in certain subjects. So the development of media is actually a very good thing so what needs to be done now is to increase public awareness and knowledge in sorting out information (HD).
Development is a series of progressive changes that occur as a result of the process of maturity and experience and consists of a series of changes that are qualitative and quantitative. Then according to Kasiram, development is the appearance of new and different properties from before. From the definitions raised by the experts, it can be concluded that development is a series of processes with changes that are more advanced than before, which gives rise to new things that have not been encountered before and perfects or improves what was previously found therein. The development of information and communication technology is one of the effects of the times that are experiencing rapid progress.
Many things lie behind the development of information and communication technology, one of which is the need for humankind who are increasingly required to be able to carry out things more easily and effectively today. Discussion of the definition of information and communication technology is certainly related to the definition of the system where the word system has a meaning of a collection of components that have an element of interrelation with one another. In this case information and communication technology is an interrelated component of one another.
Then the word "technology" is also used to refer to a set of techniques that are seen as activities that shape or change culture. The era of globalization that came quite rapidly resulted in a development in the field of information and communication technology. Then seen from the development of information and communication technology has various definitions that are put forward, namely, among others

Once the Synoptic Gospels area unit organized during a parallel arrangement

Once the Synoptic Gospels area unit organized during a parallel arrangement
To begin with, the analysis sees the requirement to in brief explore what and why these gospels area unit noted as “Gospels” and “synoptics gospels. Nickle explained that the term ‘gospel’ chiefly talk over with a kind of papers like the primary four books of the New Testament. He explained that the first sense of the gospel was to proclaim ‘good news.’ The gospel as a technically designation of a kind of literature is found within the varied apocryphal (‘hidden” however later mean ‘non apocryphal’). a lot of significantly, the first Christians considerably broaden ‘gospel’ to summarize the preaching of prophet that encapsulates his public ministry.
Obviously, the New Testament canon presents four (4) separate accounts of the lifetime of the Nazarene from that the church nourishes spiritually and doctrinally. However, the specific structure and narrative parallels between Matthew, Mark and Luke create it attainable to line their accounts of Jesus’ life aboard each other – “Synoptic Problem: Exploring Griesbach Hypothesis”. this allows one to achieve a “synoptic” summary the 3 accounts. once the Synoptic Gospels area unit organized during a parallel arrangement it's obvious they fill in a literary relationship with each other. In recent centuries students have questioned what that relationship is. This has light-emitting diode to at least one of the main unresolved problems in Gospel Studies: “The Synoptic Problem”.
This assertion forms the framework of this discourse. seeable of this, many students (notably among them are; J.J Griesbach and Streeter) have wanted to relinquish explanations on the wide similarities and variations in spite of the intensive agreements of those 3 literary works. Over the years, the interest is within the story of the Nazarene and not within the peculiarities of every of our four canonical Gospels.
Goodacre explains that almost all of the the Nazarene films adopt identical course; they harmonize the events recorded within the Gospels within the arrange to turn out a coherent, dramatic narrative. till the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries in Europe nearly everybody in Christianity thought-about that the historical accounts found within the Bible and their denotative which means were precisely the same factor. whether or not the Bible spoke regarding Adam or the Nazarene, they existed; and their actual activities were in a lot of identical manner because the Bible describes.
Matthew, Mark, Luke and John area unit noted as ‘Gospels’ as a result of they provide records of the Nazarene birth, life, ministry, death and resurrection. however Matthew, Mark and Luke area unit known as ‘Synoptic Gospels’ as a result of they provide details of Jesus’ life which may be organized in columns so they may be ‘viewed together’ (syn = with; opsis = look at). this is often as a result of variations exists between John and Matthew, Mark and Luke on crucial matters; the chronology of Jesus’ crucifixion and cardinal events in his ministry.
In fact, Matthew, Mark and Luke area unit severally on identical page with relation to their descriptions of same event. This analysis and assessment prompted the Syrian Tatian try on the problem of various accounts by harmonizing them into one narrative. although the gospel of John can't be completely sideline from any discourse on the gospels; but, the synoptic gospels area unit the first considerations of this analysis. But with the approaching of the Enlightenment (Aufklarung) in Europe (c. 1660-1802) this synthesis began to fall aside.
the expansion of the sciences (natural and social) caused individuals to doubt the received history that diminished from the traditional world. it absolutely was reckoned that solely those things returning from antiquity that passed the check of vital reason would be considered true. In historical study this meant that one should critically study the sources so as to judge the claims of any writing.

Definition, advantages & disadvantages of E-government

Definition, advantages & disadvantages of E-government
1. Understanding E-Government E-Government is short for government electronics. E-Governtment is commonly known as e-gov, digital government, online government or transformation government. E-Government is an effort to develop governance-based electronic governance. A management system and work process structuring in the government environment by optimizing the use of information and communication technology. Or E-Government is the use of information technology by the government to provide information and services for its citizens, business affairs, and other matters relating to government. e-Government can be applied to the legislative, judiciary, or public administration, to improve internal efficiency, deliver public services, or democratic governance processes.
There are three models of delivering E-Government, including: a. Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Customer (G2C) Electronic governance and effective public administration is a one-way delivery of public services and information by the government to the community, Allows the exchange of information and communication between the community and the government for example G2C: Tax online, job search, Social security services, personal documents (Birth and marriage certificates, Passport Application, Referral License), Immigration services, Health services, Scholarships, disaster management.
b. Government-to-Business (G2B) Are electronic transactions where the government provides various information needed for businesses to transact with the government. Leading to marketing products and services to the government to help the government become more efficient through improving business processes and electronic data management. The application that facilitates G2B and B2G interactions is the e-procurement system. Examples: Corporate tax, Business opportunities, company registration, government regulations (Business Law), government auctions and sales, trademark patents, etc. c. Government-to-Government (G2G) Allows online communication and exchange of information between departments or government agencies through integrated databases. Examples: Online consultation, legislative blogging, online education, integrated community service. Benefits of E-Government for the people
1. Better service to the community. Information can be provided 24 hours, 7 days a week, without having to wait for the office to open. Information can be sought from the office, home, without having to physically come to the government office. 2. Enhancing relations between the government, business people and the general public. With transparency [transparency], it is hoped that relations between the various parties will be better. This openness eliminates mutual suspicion and resentment from all parties.
3. Community empowerment through information that is easily obtained. With sufficient information, the community will learn to be able to make their choices. For example, school data; the number of classes, student capacity, passing grades, etc., can be displayed online and used by parents to choose the right school for their children. 4. More efficient governance. For example, government coordination can be done through e-mail or even video confernce. 5. Information and Communication Tenology developed in government or what is called e-government makes it easier for the public to access government policies so that the program launched by the government can run smoothly. 6. e-government can also support more efficient governance, and can improve communication between the government and the business and industrial sectors.
7. The public can provide input on policies made by the government so that it can improve the performance of the government8. In addition to the attractive appearance and color combination, the information presented is very complete and up to date. 9. There is transportation information, foreign exchange information, and information about water levels. 10. This website covers many aspects such as law, religion, social and culture, business and business area, education, and so on. 11. All are open to government and society. For a long time the issue of bureaucratic reform has become an interesting discourse, especially since the reform movement was rolled out which demanded improvements in all fields.
The demand to create a clean and authoritative government, free from KKN practices is increasingly intense. Today's society continues to demand to increasingly get better services. Changes in attitudes and community demands that tend to be drastic from passive, nerimo, to aggressive and selective are imperative for the government to anticipate immediately by implementing governance in a serious and directed manner. Public services which have recently become a central issue have forced all parties, both state institutions and the public, to re-regulate their operations. Although the provision of public services is an obligation that must be carried out by the government as the organizer of the state, but the obligation to provide these services is still unable to provide satisfaction for the user community (Larasati, 2007: iii).
So in addition to e-government, what is needed is the concept of e-governance (e-govt) which is a form of e-business in the government sector. This refers to a process and structure aimed at providing public services electronically, both to the general public (citizens) and entrepreneurs (businesses). From these two concepts, e-government can be concluded as the application of electronic devices in (1) interaction between the government and the community (citizens) and the government with business people, (2) the internal operations of the government. The interaction through electronic media is solely in the framework of facilitating and encouraging the creation of democratization and better governance.
The explanation of e-govt refers to the characteristics of good governance which require transparency and efficiency in governance. Good governance, which is translated as good governance or trustworthy government, is a concept that was born in line with the concepts of democracy, civil society, people's participation, human rights, and sustainable development. With e-governance, it is crucial to realize good governance. Whoever is elected as The Next President of Indonesia, he is obliged to run the governmental wheels well, effectively and efficiently. The election is only one of the most important parts in the concession process that holds the mandate of the people's power after being elected, he must become the people's servant.